Some people who do clean-ups, handle emergencies listed, and perform HAZWOPER work.

You need 24 or 40 Hour training required by 29 CFR 1910.120 OSHA training and an annual 8 hour refresher each year.

For clean-up site or Emergency Responses to fire, chemical or explosive toxic atmospheres.

A-Alfa B-Bravo C-Charlie D-Delta E-Echo F-Foxtrot G-Golf H-Hotel I-India J-Juliett K-Kilo L-Lima M-Mike N-November O-Oscar P-Papa Q-Quebec R-Romeo S-Sierra T-Tango U-Uniform V-Victor W-Whiskey X-X-Ray X-X-Ray Z-Zulu




























































































































































































































































































Access Control Points: 

Points that are established to control entry to and exit from established Work zones work zones at hazardous waste sites. Access control points should be established between the Exclusion Zone (ExZ) and Contamination Reduction Zone (CRZ), and between the Contamination Reduction Zone and Support Zone (SZ).


The adapting of an employee to new temperature, altitude, climate, environment, or situation.


The individual stationed outside one or more Permit-required Confined Spaces permit-required confined spaces who monitors the authorized entrants and who performs all attendant's duties assigned in the employer's permit space program.

Authorized Entrant:

An employee who is authorized by the employer to enter a permit-required confined space.

B Bravo

Biological Hazards:

 Infectious agents presenting an actual or potential hazard to the well-being of employees, either directly through infection or indirectly through disruption of the environment. Such hazards also include plant exposures (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak, and molds), animal exposures (e.g., stings and snake bites), medical wastes  (e.g., bloodborne pathogens), and bioremediation agents or their toxins (e.g., bacteria used to clean up oil spills).


Inserting a solid barrier across the open end of a pipe leading into or out of a confined space and securing the barrier in such a way as to prevent leakage of material into the confined space.

Buddy System:

A system for organizing employees into work groups in such a manner that each employee in the group is observed by a least one other employee in the group at all times. The purpose of the buddy system is to provide rapid assistance to employees in the event of an Emergency.

Bulk Container:

A cargo container used for transporting large quantities of substances.


A screw or cap used to cover the small opening of a metal drums drum or barrel.



Chemical Hazard:

Any regulated or non-regulated hazardous material (solids, liquids, and gases; natural or man-made; including petroleum products) with the potential for causing harm to people, the environment, or property when released.

Clean-up Operation:

An operation where hazardous substances are removed, contained, incinerated, neutralized, stabilized, cleaned up, or in any other manner processed or handled with the ultimate goal of making the site safer for people or the environment.

Confined Space:

A space that has all of the following characteristics:

  • Is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform work;


  • Is not intended for continuous occupancy; and


  • Has limited or restricted means for entry and exit.

Contamination Control Line:

The boundaries boundary between the Support Zone and the Contamination Reduction Zone. The contamination control line separates the low-contamination area from the clean support zone.

Contamination Reduction Zone (CRZ):

The transition area between the Exclusion Zone (ExZ) and the Support Zone (SZ) used to reduce and limit the amount of contamination on people and equipment, and in the air, water and soil that may be transferred into non-hazardous areas. The CRZ contains decontamination facilities, and functions as a buffer zone surrounding the ExZ.


OSHA Compliance Safety and Health Officer.




The separation of liquid from solid by physical means such as draining or pouring off the liquid. Usually of a sludge, two-phase material, or other liquid, semi-liquid, or solid material are decanted with the liquid being either pumped into another drum or absorbed onto sawdust or other absorbent.


The effective removal of hazardous substances from personnel, materials, and equipment to the extent necessary to preclude the occurrence of adverse health effects resulting from exposure.

Decontamination Line:

A sequence of stations located in the contamination reduction zone (CRZ) used in the decontamination of personnel or equipment.

Double Block and Bleed:

A method used to isolate a confined space from a line, duct, or pipe by physically closing two in-line valves on a piping system and opening a vented-to-atmosphere valve between them.

E Echo

Emergency (Site):

A sudden and unexpected event, taking place on the site, and requiring urgent action for control or remediation in order to minimize the danger to people, the environment, or property.

Emergency Release:

A release of hazardous substance(s) that presents a potential safety or health hazard.

Emergency Response:

A response effort from employees outside of the immediate release area to an occurrence that results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of hazardous substance.


The surrounding and effective capture of a person by a liquid or finely divided (flowable) solid substance that can be aspirated to cause death by filling or plugging the respiratory system, or that can exert enough force on the body to cause death by strangulation, constriction, or crushing.

EPA Levels of Protection: 

The personal protective equipment ensembles identified as Level A, B, C, or D, and listed in Appendix B of 29 CFR 1910.120 and in the four-agency manual entitled Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities (1985).

Exclusion Zone (ExZ):

The area, located on the site, where contamination is either known or expected to occur and where the greatest potential for exposure exists. Also known as the Hot Zone.

F Foxtrot


(a) Any building, structure, installation, equipment, pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, storage container, motor vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft, or (b) any site or area where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, or otherwise come to be located. Water-borne vessels or consumer products in use by a consumer are not considered to be facilities.



GHS Global Harmonization System for right to know and understand the hazards of substances under the Hazard Comunication Standard 29 CFR 1910.12000


A device used for handling or moving materials from a safe distance.



Hazard Analysis:

The process to define and evaluate the activity being performed to identify the sequence of work and the specific hazards anticipated, and to develop control measures to be implemented to eliminate or reduce each hazard to an acceptable level.

Hazardous Area:

A place on a hazardous waste site or corrective action site where access is restricted to personnel who have specialized training and who are using personal protective equipment as necessary because of the possibility of exposure to health or safety hazards.

Hazardous Chemical:

Any chemical that presents a physical hazard or a health hazard upon exposure.

Hazardous Material:

See hazardous substance.

Hazardous Substance:

Any substance listed below, exposure to which results or may result in adverse effects on the health or safety of employees:

Any substance defined under section 101(14) of Comprehensive Environ. Response, Compensation & Recovery Act CERCLA;

Any biological agent or other disease-causing agent that, after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into any person, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction), or physical deformations in such persons or their offspring;

Any substance listed by the U.S. Department of Transportation DOT Department of Transportation as a hazardous material under 49 CFR 172.101 and appendices; and

Hazardous waste as defined herein below.

Hazardous Waste:

A waste or combination of wastes as defined in 40 CFR 261.3 or those substances defined as hazardous wastes in 49 CFR 171.8.


A hazardous materials response team organized and designated by the employer, that is expected to perform work to handle and control actual or potential leaks or spills of hazardous substances requiring possible close approach to the substance. The team members perform responses to releases or potential releases of hazardous substances for the purpose of control or stabilization of the incident. A HAZMAT team is not a fire brigade nor is a typical fire brigade a HAZMAT team. A HAZMAT team, however, may be a separate component of a fire brigade or fire department.


Acronym for the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response standard.


The outer boundary of the Exclusion Zone. The Hotline separates the areas of contamination from the rest of the site.

Hot Work:

Work that produces arcs, sparks, flames, heat, or other sources of ignition.

Hot Work Permit:

The employer's written authorization to perform operations (e.g., riveting, welding, cutting, burning, and heating) capable of providing a source of ignition.

J Juliett



Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH):

Any atmospheric condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would impair the ability of a person to escape an area. [NOTE: Some materials--hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor, for example--may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12 to 72 hours after exposure. The victim recovers from transient effects, "feels normal," and then collapses. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately" dangerous to life or health.]


The displacement of the atmosphere in a container, vessel, or permit-required 1910.146, Permit-required Confined Spaces confined space by a non-combustible gas (such as nitrogen) to such an extent that the resulting atmosphere is non-combustible. [NOTE: This procedure produces an IDLH oxygen-deficient atmosphere.]

K Kilo

Key Personnel:

Those personnel/organizations considered to be essential to ensure the safe operation of the facility, site, project, or task.

L Lima

Lab Pack:

A package of hazardous waste containing several smaller packages of compatible chemical waste. Usually chemical waste from laboratories which do not generate large quantities of any one chemical waste are disposed of in lab packs.


Acronyms for lower explosive limit/lower flammable limit and upper explosive limit/upper flammable limit. The range of concentrations of a flammable gas or vapor in air in which combustion or explosion can occur. A concentration below the lower limit is not sufficient to support combustion to lean to burn, and above the upper limit the mixture is too rich to burn.

Line Breaking:

The intentional opening of a pipe, line, or duct that is or has been carrying flammable, corrosive, or toxic material, an inert gas, or any fluid at a volume, pressure, or temperature capable of causing injury.


The placement of a lock/tag on the energy-isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, indicating that the energy-isolating device shall not be operated until removal of the lock/tag in accordance with an established procedure.



Mixed Waste:

Waste materials that present both chemical and radiological hazards.

N November
NATO Phonetic Alphabet:  
International: Alfa Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliett Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-Ray Yankee Zulu
American: Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-Ray Yankee Zulu
0 Nadazero
1 Unaone
2 Bissotwo
3 Terrathree
4 Kartefour
5 Pantafive
6 Soxisix
7 Setteseven
8 Oktoeight
9 Novenine
. Decimal Point
. Stop




Off-site Personnel:

Those personnel assigned to locations off the site with specific responsibilities for emergency response, safety and health, or other support at the site. Examples include multi-disciplinary advisors, ambulance services, medical support, etc.

On-site Essential Personnel:

Those required personnel, available on the site, who by virtue of their position, responsibilities, and/or expertise, are considered essential to the overall safe operation of the site.

On-site Optional Personnel:

Those personnel, who at the discretion of site management, may be included as part of the site safety and health and Emergency response key personnel. Examples include scientific advisors, logistics officers, photographers, etc.


An oversized container into which a leaking drums drum can be placed for transport.

Oxygen-deficient Atmosphere:

An atmosphere containing less than 19.5% oxygen by volume.

Oxygen-enriched Atmosphere:

An atmosphere containing more than 23.5% oxygen by volume.



Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

The employee's permitted exposure to any material or physical agent listed in Table Z-1, Z-2, or Z-3 of 29 CFR 1910.1000, Air Contaminants.

Permit-Required Confined Space (PRCS):

A confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:

Contains or has potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere;

Contains a material that has the potential to engulf an entrant;

Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section; or

Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Permit System:

The employer's written procedure for preparing and issuing permits for entry and for returning the permit-required confined space to service following termination of entry.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):

Clothing and equipment used to shield or isolate individuals from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered at a hazardous waste site. PPE should protect the respiratory system, skin, eyes, face, hands, feet, head, body, and hearing.

Physical controls :

Physical barriers put into place that limit personnel exposure to hazards.

Physical Hazards:

Those work-related sources of actual or potential danger (e.g., machinery, trip and fall, hoisting and rigging, shoring and trenching) to which employees may be exposed.

Project Manager:

The person appointed by the employer to have control over the project site where occupational activities are being performed.

Q Quebec

Qualified Person:

A person who, by reason of training, education, and experience, is knowledgeable in the operation to be performed and is competent to judge the hazards involved.

R Romeo

Radiological Hazard:

Internal or external body exposure or potential exposure to the effect of ionizing radiation through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with radioactive isotopes or materials or objects contaminated with radioactive isotopes; or through tissue penetration from a radiation generator or a container of radioactive isotopes.


Reduction or removal of unacceptable levels of hazardous materials from environmental media such as water or soil to reduce the health hazards to the public from the hazardous materials.

Rescue Service:

The personnel designated to rescue employees from hazardous areas.


The quantitative or qualitative expression of possible loss that considers both the probability that a hazard will cause harm and the consequences of that event. Risk = (Probability) x (Severity).

S Sierra

Site Safety and Health Supervisor:

The individual located at a hazardous waste site who is responsible to the employer and has the knowledge and authority to implement the site safety and health plan and to verify compliance with applicable safety and health requirements.

Site-Specific Training:

Training designed to instruct employees in the unique features of a hazardous waste site.

Support Zone (SZ):

The uncontaminated area where workers are unlikely to be exposed to hazardous substances or dangerous conditions. Also called the Clean Zone.

T Tango


A well-defined unit of work having an identifiable beginning and end with two or more elements. A task is a series of jobs performed in support of a particular project.

Thermal Destruction Facility (TDF):

An incinerator located at a hazardous waste site. The incinerator may be permanently located, such as at a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) RCRA-permitted facility, or temporarily located (i.e., transportable) at a remediation site.

Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF):

A permitted or interim-status facility, as regulated under 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) ( RCRA regulations), where hazardous waste is disposed of, stored, or treated prior to disposal.


V Victor
W Whiskey

Work Plan:

That part of a safety and health program that addresses the tasks and objectives of site operations and the logistics and resources required to reach those tasks and objectives.














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