DOWNLOAD COLD STRESS PDFFR
What Happens to the Body:
FREEZING IN DEEP LAYERS OF SKIN AND
TISSUE; PALE, WAXY-WHITE
SKIN COLOR; SKIN BECOMES HARD and NUMB;
THE FINGERS, HANDS, TOES, FEET, EARS, and
Should Be Done: (land temperatures)
Move the person to a warm dry area.
Dont leave the person alone.
Remove any wet or tight clothing that
may cut off blood flow to the affected
DO NOT rub the affected area, because
rubbing causes damage to the skin
Gently place the affected area in a warm
(105°F) water bath and monitor the
water temperature to slowly warm the
tissue. Dont pour warm water
directly on the affected area because it
will warm the tissue too fast causing
tissue damage. Warming takes about 25-40
After the affected area has been warmed, it may become puffy and
affected area may have a burning feeling or numbness. When normal
feeling, movement, and skin color have
returned, the affected area should be
dried and wrapped to keep it warm. NOTE:
If there is a chance the affected
area may get cold again, do not warm the
skin. If the skin is warmed and
then becomes cold again, it will cause
severe tissue damage.
Seek medical attention as soon as
HYPOTHERMIA - (Medical
What Happens to the Body:
NORMAL BODY TEMPERATURE (98.6° F/37°C )
DROPS TO OR BELOW 95°F
(350 C); FATIGUE OR DROWSINESS;
UNCONTROLLED SHIVERING; COOL BLUISH
SKIN; SLURRED SPEECH; CLUMSY MOVEMENTS;
IRRITABLE, IRRATIONAL OR
What Should Be
Done: (land temperatures)
for emergency help (i.e., Ambulance
or Call 911).
Move the person to a warm, dry area.
Dont leave the person alone. Remove any
wet clothing and replace with warm, dry
clothing or wrap the person in blankets.
Have the person drink warm, sweet drinks
(sugar water or sports-type drinks) if they
are alert. Avoid drinks with caffeine
(coffee, tea, or hot chocolate) or alcohol.
Have the person move their arms and legs
to create muscle heat. If they are unable
to do this, place warm bottles or hot
packs in the arm pits, groin, neck, and head
areas. DO NOT rub the persons body or
place them in warm water bath. This may
stop their heart.
What Should Be
Done: (water temperatures)
for emergency help (Ambulance or
Call 911). Body heat is lost up to 25 times
faster in water.
DO NOT remove any clothing. Button,
buckle, zip, and tighten any collars, cuffs,
shoes, and hoods because the layer of
trapped water closest to the body provides
a layer of insulation that slows the loss
of heat. Keep the head out of the water and
put on a hat or hood.
Get out of the water as quickly as
possible or climb on anything floating. DO NOT
attempt to swim unless a floating object
or another person can be reached because
swimming or other physical activity uses
the bodys heat and reduces survival time
by about 50 percent.
If getting out of the water is not
possible, wait quietly and conserve body heat by
folding arms across the chest, keeping
thighs together, bending knees, and crossing
ankles. If another person is in the water,
huddle together with chests held closely.
How to Protect
Recognize the environmental and
workplace conditions that lead to potential
cold-induced illnesses and injuries.
Learn the signs and symptoms of
cold-induced illnesses/injuries and what
to do to help the worker.
Train the workforce about cold-induced
illnesses and injuries.
Select proper clothing for cold, wet,
and windy conditions. Layer clothing
to adjust to changing environmental
temperatures. Wear a hat and gloves, in
addition to underwear that will keep water
away from the skin (polypropylene).
Take frequent short breaks in warm dry
shelters to allow the body to warm up.
Perform work during the warmest part of
Avoid exhaustion or fatigue because energy is needed to keep muscles
the buddy system (work in pairs).
Drink warm, sweet beverages (sugar
water, sports-type drinks). Avoid drinks
with caffeine (coffee, tea, or hot
chocolate) or alcohol.
Eat warm, high-calorie foods like hot
Workers Are at Increased Risk When...
They have predisposing health conditions
such as cardiovascular disease,
diabetes, and hypertension.
They take certain medication (check with
your doctor, nurse, or pharmacy
and ask if any medicines you are taking
affect you while working in cold
They are in poor physical condition,
have a poor diet, or are older
Inuit Hunter Guard, Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus), Clean up in snow